Strate­gic think­ing, or what I think what we need to do to keep FreeB­SD rel­e­vant

Since I par­tic­i­pate in the FreeB­SD project there are from time to time some voic­es which say FreeB­SD is dead, Lin­ux is the way to go. Most of the time those voic­es are trolls, or peo­ple which do not real­ly know what FreeB­SD has to offer. Some­times those voic­es wear blind­ers, they only see their own lit­tle world (were Lin­ux just works fine) and do not see the big pic­ture (like e.g. com­pe­ti­tion stim­u­lates busi­ness, …) or even dare to look what FreeB­SD has to offer.

Some­times those voic­es raise a valid con­cern, and it is up to the FreeB­SD project to fil­ter out what would be ben­e­fi­cial. Recent­ly there were some mails on the FreeB­SD lists in the sense of “What about going into direc­tion X?”. Some peo­ple just had the opin­ion that we should stay were we are. In my opin­ion this is sim­i­lar­ly bad to blind­ly say­ing FreeB­SD is dead and fol­low­ing the mass­es. It would mean stag­na­tion. We should not hold peo­ple back in explor­ing new / dif­fer­ent direc­tions. Some­one wants to write a ker­nel mod­ule in (a sub­set of) C++ or in Rust… well, go ahead, give it a try, we can put it into the Ports Col­lec­tion and let peo­ple get expe­ri­ence with it.

This dis­cus­sion on the mail­inglists also trig­gered some kind of “where do we see us in the next years” / strate­gic think­ing reflec­tion. What I present here, is my very own opin­ion about things we in the FreeB­SD project should look at, to stay rel­e­vant in the long term. To be able to put that into scope, I need to clar­i­fy what “rel­e­vant” means in this case.

FreeB­SD is cur­rent­ly used by com­pa­nies like Net­flix, NetApp, Cis­co, Juniper, and many oth­ers as a base for prod­ucts or ser­vices. It is also used by end-users as a work-horse (e.g. mailservers, web­servers, …). Stay­ing rel­e­vant means in this con­text, to pro­vide some­thing which the user base is inter­est­ed in to use and which makes it more easy / fast for the user base to deliv­er what­ev­er they want or need to deliv­er than with anoth­er kind of sys­tem. And this in terms of time to mar­ket of a solu­tion (time to deliv­er a ser­vice like a web-/mail-/whatever-server or prod­uct), and in terms of per­for­mance (which not only means speed, but also secu­ri­ty and reli­a­bil­i­ty and …) of the solu­tion.

I have cat­e­go­rized the list of items I think are impor­tant into (new) code/features, docs, pol­ish­ing and project infra­struc­ture. Links in the fol­low­ing usu­al­ly point to documentation/HOWTOs/experiences for/with FreeB­SD, and not to the canon­i­cal entry points of the projects or tech­nolo­gies. In a few cas­es the links point to an expla­na­tion in the wikipedia or to the web­site of the top­ic in ques­tion.


The vir­tu­al­iza­tion train (Open­Stack, Open­Neb­u­la, oVirt, Cloud­Stack, Kuber­netes, Dock­er, Pod­man, …) is run­ning on full speed. The marked is as big/important, that solu­tion providers even do joint ven­tures on cross­ing bor­ders between each oth­ers, e.g. VMware is open­ing up to inte­grate their solu­tion with solu­tions from Amazon/Azure/Google. The under­ly­ing infra­struc­ture is get­ting more and more unim­por­tant, as long as the ser­vices which shall be run per­form as need­ed. Ease of use and time to mar­ket are the key-drivers (the last lit­tle piece of per­for­mance is most­ly impor­tant for com­pa­nies which go to the “edge” (both mean­ings intend­ed in a non-exclusive-or way) like Net­flix for their FreeB­SD based CDN). FreeB­SD is not real­ly par­tic­i­pat­ing in this world. Yes, we had jails way before any­one else out there had some­thing smi­lar, and some even do not have that right now. But if you are real­is­tic, FreeB­SD does not play a major role here. You can do nice things with jails and bhyve, but you have to do it “by hand” (ezjail, iocage and such are improve­ments on the ease of use side, but that is not enough as this is still lim­it­ed on a host cen­tric view). The world has moved on to admin­is­ter­ing a dat­a­cen­ter (to avoid the buzz­words “cloud” or “private-cloud”) with a single-click. In my opin­ion we would need to port sev­er­al of the ini­tialy men­tioned cloud/container man­age­ment solu­tions to FreeB­SD and have them able to han­dle their work via jails and/or bhyve. If FreeB­SD is not able to serve as a build­ing block in this big pic­ture, we will fall off the edge in this par­tic­u­lar IT-area in the long run.

With all the ready-made con­tain­ers avail­able in the inter­net, we should improve our lin­ux­o­la­tor. Our kernel-support for this is lim­it­ed to a 2.6.32-ish ABI ver­sion (it is less than 2.6.32, more like 2.6.16, we are miss­ing epoll and ino­ti­fy sup­port, among oth­ers, but this is the low­est ver­sion glibc in the Cen­tOS 7 based linux_base port is able to run on… and glibc checks the ver­sion num­ber). We need to catch-up to a more recent ver­sion if we want to be able to run those ready-made lin­ux con­tain­ers with­out issue (we can put a lin­ux sys­tem into a jail and start that). If some­one would like to work on that, a good start would be to run the Lin­ux Test Project tests via the lin­ux­u­la­tor and start fix­ing bugs. The last time I did that was in 2007 and about 16% of the test cas­es failed back then. It would be also quite nice if we could inte­grate those lin­ux­u­la­tor tests into the FreeB­SD CI. With improve­ments in the lin­ux­u­la­tor and the above men­tioned vir­tu­al­iza­tion sup­port, we should be able to run more/those linux-images … ehrm, sor­ry, docker/kubernetes/…-containers with­in the lin­ux­u­la­tor.

Fin­ish the work regard­ing ker­beros in base. Cy Schu­bert is/was work­ing on this. I do not know the sta­tus of this, but the “fix­ing 800 ports” part in his mail from May 2018 looks like some more help­ing hands would be ben­e­fi­cial. This would bring us to a bet­ter start­ing point for a more seam­less inte­gra­tion (some ports need “the oth­er” ker­beros).

We have one port (as far as I was able to deter­mine… the exact amount does not real­ly mat­ter) in terms of SDN – net/openvswitch – but the doc­u­men­ta­tion of this … leaves room for improve­ment (ker­nel sup­port / netmap sup­port and func­tion­al­i­ty / FreeB­SD spe­cif­ic HOWTO). As part of the vir­tu­al­i­sa­tion of every­thing we (yes: we – as part of the FreeB­SD hand­book, see docs cat­e­go­ry below for more on this) need to pro­vide this info so that FreeB­SD is able to par­tic­i­pate in this area. We should also have a look at port­ing some more SDN soft­ware, e.g Open­Con­trail now tung­sten­fab­ric (there is an old con­trail port­ing project), Open­Stack Neu­tron, Open­Day­light, … so that users have a choice, respec­tive­ly FreeB­SD can be inte­grat­ed into exist­ing het­ero­ge­neous envi­ron­ments. 

Sen­sors (tem­per­a­ture, volt­age, fans, …), a top­ic with his­to­ry. Short: in the Google Sum­mer of Code 2007 code was pro­duced, com­mit­ted, and then removed again due to a dis­pute. My per­son­al under­stand­ing (very sim­pli­fied) is “remove every­thing because some of the data han­dled by this frame­work shall not be han­dled by this frame­work” (instead of e.g. “remove sen­sor X, this data shall not be han­dled in this way”), and “remove every­thing as this does not han­dle sen­sors of type X which are not used in servers but in enter­prise class >99% non-IT-related sen­sors”. Noth­ing bet­ter has shown up since then. If I look at Win­dow, VMware, Solaris and Lin­ux, I can query sen­sors on my mainboard/chassis/disks/whatever (yes, I am mix­ing some apples with oranges here), plot them in mon­i­tor­ing sys­tems, and get alarms. In FreeB­SD we fail on this top­ic (actu­al­ly mul­ti­ple top­ics) which I con­sid­er to be some­thing basic and manda­to­ry. I do not sug­gest that we com­mit the Google Sum­mer of Code 2007 code. I sug­gest to have a look at what makes sense to do here. Take the exist­ing code and com­mit it, or improve on this code out­side the tree and then com­mit it, or write some­thing new. In the end it does not mat­ter (for an user) which way it is han­dled, as long as we have some­thing which users can use in the end. It sure­ly makes sense to have an OS-provided frame­work of reg­is­ter­ing sen­sors in a cen­tral place (it would sure­ly be nice if you could get the temp/fan val­ues of your graph­ics card… ooops… sor­ry… AI/HPC accel­er­a­tor togeth­er with oth­er sim­i­lar hard­ware data in your hard­ware).

To con­tin­ue play­ing well (not only) in the high-availability area, we should also have a look at get­ting an imple­men­ta­tion of MPTCP (Mut­li­path TCP) into the tree. Apple (and oth­ers) is already using it since 2013 with good ben­e­fits (most prob­a­bly not only for Siri users). There exists some code for FreeB­SD, but it is far from usable and it does not look like there is progress since 2016. We say we have the pow­er to serve, but with the cloud­i­fi­ca­tion of the recent years, all users expect that every­thing is always-on and nev­er fails, and being able to pro­vide the serv­er side of this client-server relat­ed tech­nol­o­gy for those peo­ple which have such high demands is nec­es­sary to not fall behind (do not let us rest on our lau­rels).

Secure­Boot needs also some help­ing hands. At some point oper­at­ing sys­tems which do not sup­port it will not be con­sid­ered by com­pa­nies any­more.

Anoth­er item we should have a look at is to pro­vide means to write ker­nel code in dif­fer­ent lan­guages. Not in the base sys­tem, but at least in ports. If some­one wants to write a ker­nel mod­ule in  C++ or Rust, why not? It offers pos­si­bil­i­ties to explore new areas. There are even reports of expe­ri­ences with dif­fer­ent lan­guages. It does not fit your needs? Well, ignore it and con­tin­ue writ­ing ker­nel code in C, but let oth­er peo­ple which want to use a screw­driv­er instead of a ham­mer do what they want, they will either learn that they should have used a ham­mer, or can report about ben­e­fits about the screw­driv­er.


I think we can improve our end-user docs to the next lev­el. The base sys­tem is already well cov­ered (we can sure­ly find some fea­tures which we could doc­u­ment), but an user does not use FreeB­SD to use FreeB­SD. An user sure­ly has a goal in mind which requires to set­up some kind of ser­vice (mail serv­er, web serv­er, dis­play serv­er (desk­top sys­tem), …). While one could argue that it is the 3rd par­ty project which needs to doc­u­ment how to run their soft­ware on FreeB­SD, I think we need to do our share here too. There are a lot of HOW­TOs for Lin­ux, and then you have to find some tips and tricks to make some­thing work (bet­ter) on FreeB­SD. What I have in mind here is that we should doc­u­ment how to make FreeB­SD par­tic­i­pate in a Win­dows Active Direc­to­ry envi­ron­ment, or in an LDAP envi­ron­ment (as a client), improve the Sam­ba part with FreeB­SD spe­cif­ic parts (like how to make Sam­ba use ZFS snap­shots for Win­dows Shad­ow Copies), con­fig­u­ra­tion man­age­ment tools and so on. I do not talk about pro­vid­ing in-depth docs about the 3rd par­ty soft­ware, but lit­tle HOW­TOs with FreeB­SD spe­cif­ic parts / tips and tricks, and a ref­er­ence to the 3rd par­ty docs. Peo­ple come to us for real-world needs and if we pro­vide them with a head-start of the most com­mon items (e.g. also cov­er­ing nginx or what­ev­er and not only apache httpd) and then guide them to fur­ther docs will improve the val­ue of our hand­book even more for end-users (spe­cial­ly for new­com­ers, but also for expe­ri­enced FreeB­SD users which out of a sud­den now need to do some­thing which they nev­er did before…).

We should also review our docs. The hand­book lists e.g. proc­mail (just an exam­ple…). With proc­mail not being mainained any­more since a long time and known vul­ner­a­bil­i­ties we should replace the info there with info about mail­drop (or any suit­able replace­ment). Care­ful review may also find sim­i­lar items which need some care.

One more item I have in mind in terms of docs for user is the restruc­tur­ing of some parts. Now the world is more think­ing in terms of XaaS (“some­thing as a ser­vice”) we should also have a “cloud” sec­tion (going beyond of what we have in terms of vir­tu­al­iza­tion already) in out hand­book. We can put there items like the exist­ing descrip­tion of vir­tu­al­i­sa­tion items, but also should put there new items like glus­terfs or object stor­age or the hope­ful­ly upcom­ing pos­si­bil­i­ty of how to set­up OpenStack/kubernetes/… on FreeB­SD. This goes into the same direc­tion as the first docs-item in terms of pro­vide more doc­u­men­ta­tion how to achieve goals of our users. 

In my opin­ion we are also lack­ing on the developer-documentation side. Yes, we have man pages which describe the offi­cial API (in most cas­es). Where I see room for improve­ment is the source code doc­u­men­ta­tion. Some­thing like doxy­gen (or what­ev­er the tool of the day is – which one does not real­ly mat­ter, any kind of extractable-from-source doc­u­men­ta­tion is bet­ter than no extractable doc­u­men­ta­tion) is already used in sev­er­al places in our source (search for it via: egrep ‑R ‘\\(brief|file)’ /usr/src/) and we have already some infra­struc­ture to extract and ren­der (HTML / PDF) them. The more acces­si­ble / easy it is to start devel­op­ment in FreeB­SD, the more attrac­tive it will be (addi­tion­al to the exist­ing ben­e­fits) to peo­ple / com­pa­nies to dive in. The best exam­ples about doc­u­ment­ing source code in our code I have found so far is the isci and ocs_fc device code.


Pol­ish­ing some­thing in the top­ic of stay­ing rel­e­vant? Yes! It is the details which mat­ter. If peo­ple have 2 options with rough­ly the same fea­tures (noth­ing miss­ing what you need, same price), which one do they take, the one which has every­thing con­sis­tent and well inte­grat­ed, or the one with some quirks you can cir­cum­vent with a lit­tle bit of work on their side?

We have some nice fea­tures, but we are not using it to the extend pos­si­ble. One of the items which come to my mind is DTrace. The area which I think needs pol­ish­ing is to add more probes, and to have some kind of probe-convention about com­mon top­ics. For exam­ple I/O relat­ed nam­ing con­ven­tion (maybe area spe­cif­ic, like stor­age I/O and net­work I/O) and cov­er­ing all dri­vers to com­ply. We should also look into mak­ing it more acces­si­ble by pro­vid­ing more easy inter­faces (no mat­ter if text based (thanks to Devin Teske for dwatch, more of this mag­ic please…), web based, or what­ev­er) to make it real­ly easy (= start a com­mand or click around and you get the result for a spe­cif­ic set of probes/conditions/…). Some exam­ples are statemaps, flamegraphs and most promi­nent­ly the Oracle/Sun ZFS Stor­age Ana­lyt­ics to give you an idea what is pos­si­ble with DTrace and and how to make it acces­si­ble to peo­ple with­out knowl­edge about the ker­nel inter­nals and pro­gram­ming.

Some pol­ish­ing in the ports col­lec­tion would be to revis­it the defaults options for ports with options. The tar­get here should be to have con­sis­tent default set­tings (e.g. serv­er soft­ware should not depend upon X11 by default (direct­ly or indi­rect­ly), most peo­ple should not need to build the port with non-default options). One could argue that it is the respon­s­abil­i­ty of the main­tain­er of the port, and to some extend it is, but we do not have guide­lines which help here. So a lit­tle team of peo­ple to review all ports (and mod­i­fy them if nec­es­sary) and come up with guide­lines and exam­ples would be great.

Addi­tion­al­ly we should come up with meta-ports for spe­cif­ic use case, e.g. web­serv­er (dif­fer­ent flavours… apache/nginx/…), data­base (dif­fer­ent flavours, with some use­ful tools like mytop or mysql­tuner or sim­i­lar) and then even ref­er­ence them in the hand­book (this goes along with my sug­ges­tion above to doc­u­ment real-world use cas­es instead of “only” the OS itself).

Recent­ly ‑cur­rent has seen some low lev­el per­for­mance improve­ments (via ifuncs, …). We should con­tin­ue this and even extend it to revise default set­tings / val­ues (non auto-tuned and even auto-tuned ones). I think it would be ben­e­fi­cial in the long run if we tar­get more cur­rent hard­ware (with­out los­ing the abil­i­ty to run on old­er hard­ware) and for those val­ues which can not be auto-tuned pro­vide some way of down-tuning (e.g. in a failsafe-boot set­ting in the loader or in doc­u­ment­ed set­tings for rc.conf or wher­ev­er those defaults can be changed).

Project infra­struc­ture

We have a CI (con­tin­u­ous inte­gra­tion) sys­tem, but it is not very promi­nent­ly placed. Just recent­ly it gained some more atten­tion from the devel­op­er side and we even got the first sta­tus report about it (nice! vis­i­bil­i­ty helps mak­ing it a part of the com­mu­ni­ty effort). There is a FreeBSD-wiki page about the sta­tus and the future ideas, but it was not updat­ed since sev­er­al months. There is also a page which talks in more details about using it for per­for­mance test­ing, which is some­thing peo­ple have talked about since years but nev­er became avail­able (and is not today).

I think we need to improve here. The goals I think which are impor­tant are to get var­i­ous test­ing, san­i­tiz­ing and fuzzing tech­nolo­gies inte­grat­ed into our CI. On the con­fig repos­i­to­ry I have not found any inte­gra­tion of e.g. the cor­re­spond­ing clang tech­nolo­gies (fuzzing, ASAN, UBSAN, MSAN (still exper­i­men­tal, so maybe not to tar­get before oth­er mature tech­nolo­gies)) or any oth­er such tech­nol­o­gy.

We should also make our CI more public/visible (build sta­tus linked some­where on, nag peo­ple more about issues found by it, have some docs how to add new tests (maybe from ports), so that more peo­ple can help in extend what we auto­mat­i­cal­ly test (e.g. how could I inte­grate the LTP (Lin­ux Test Project) tests to test our lin­ux­u­la­tor? This requires the down­load of a lin­ux dist port, the LTP itself, and then to run the tests). There are a lot of nice ideas float­ing around, but I have the impres­sion we are lack­ing some help­ing hands to get var­i­ous items inte­grat­ed.


Var­i­ous items I talked above are not sexy. Those are typ­i­cal­ly not the things peo­ple do just for fun. Those are typ­i­cal­ly items peo­ple get paid for. It would be nice if some of the com­pa­nies which ben­e­fit from FreeB­SD would be so nice to lend a help­ing hand for one or anoth­er item. Maybe the FreeB­SD Foun­da­tion has some con­tacts they could ask about this?

It could also be that for some of the items I men­tioned here there is more ongo­ing that I know of. This means then that the cor­re­spond­ing work could be made more known on the mail­inglists. When it is more known, maybe some­one wants to pro­vide a help­ing hand.

Send to Kin­dle

DTrace in GENERIC (-cur­rent)

In case you have not noticed yet, KDTRACE_HOOKS is now in the GENERIC ker­nel in FreeB­SD-cur­rent. This means you just need to load the DTrace mod­ules and can use DTrace with the GENERIC ker­nel.

In case you do not know what you can do with DTrace, take the time to have a look at the DTrace blog. It is worth any minute you invest read­ing it.

Send to Kin­dle

How to fix FreeB­SD for cor­po­ra­tions (and user with small­er instal­la­tions), the tools-viewpoint

There is a huge dis­cus­sion going on on hackers@ about how FreeB­SD is not suit­able for large instal­la­tions (any­more?). As of this writ­ing, the dis­cus­sion seems to get some discussion-clusters. We have some sub-topics which could lead to some good improve­ments.

One subtopic is the release engi­neer­ing. Some changes like a more guid­ed approach of what should be merged to which branch, the fre­quen­cy of releas­es and maybe some kind of long-term-branch(es). There is some dis­cus­sion to get maybe some joined-funding in some way from inter­est­ed par­ties to pay some­one to take care about long-term-branch(es).

Anoth­er subtopic is the way bugs are han­dled in our old bug­track­ing soft­ware and how patch­es go unno­ticed there.

And both of them are con­nect­ed (parts more, parts less) by what can be done in a vol­un­teer project.

To me it looks like the pro­pos­als “just” need some refine­ments and some “vol­un­teers” to put val­ue (this means man pow­er and/or mon­ey) to what they said.

What I want to dis­cuss here is, how tools could help with mak­ing PRs/patches more vis­i­ble to devel­op­ers (there is already the pos­si­bil­i­ty to get emails from the small bugbuster-team about patch­es in PR data­base, but you have to ask them to get them) and how to make it more easy to get patch­es into FreeB­SD.

Mak­ing bugs more vis­i­ble to devel­op­ers

The obvi­ous first: We need a dif­fer­ent bug­track­ing sys­tem. We already know about it. There is (or was…) even some­one work­ing IIRC on an eval­u­a­tion of what could be done and how easy/hard it would be. I am not aware of any out­come, despite the fact that it is months (or even a year) since this was announced. I do not blame any­one here, I would like to get time to fin­ish some FreeB­SD vol­un­teer work myself.

In my opin­ion this needs to be han­dled in a com­mer­cial way. Some­one needs to be offi­cial­ly paid (with a dead­line) to pro­duce a result. Unfor­tu­nate­ly there is the prob­lem that the require­ments are in a way, that peo­ple do not have to change their workflows/procedures.

IIRC peo­ple ask that they should be able to send a mail to the bug­track­er with­out the need for authen­ti­ca­tion. Per­son­al­ly I think the bug­track­ing issue is in a state where we need to change our workflows/procedures. It is con­ve­nient to get mails from the bug­track­er and only have to reply to the mail to add some­thing. On the oth­er hand, if I report bugs some­where, and if I real­ly care about the prob­lem res­o­lu­tion, I am will­ing login to what­ev­er inter­face to get this damn prob­lem solved.

Send­ing a prob­lem report from the sys­tem where I have the issue in an easy way is a very use­ful fea­ture. Cur­rent­ly we have send-pr for this and it uses emails. This means it requires a work­ing email set­up. As an user I do not care if the tool uses email or HTTP or HTTPS, I just want to have an easy way to sub­mit the prob­lem. I would not mind if I first have to do a “send-problem reg­is­ter me@tld” (once), “send-problem login me@tld” (once per system+user I want to send from) and then maybe a “send-problem tem­plate write_template_here.txt” (to get some tem­plate text to fill out), edit the tem­plate file and then run “send-problem send my_report.txt file1 file2 …”. That would be a dif­fer­ent work­flow, but still easy.

Email noti­fi­ca­tions are sure­ly need­ed, but if I real­ly care about a prob­lem, I can be both­ered to reg­is­ter first. So in my opin­ion, we need a dif­fer­ent bug­track­er des­per­ate­ly enough that we need to drop our require­ments regard­ing our cur­rent workflow/procedures (even if it means we can not get a com­mand line way of sub­mit­ting bugs at all). The pri­ma­ry goal of the soft­ware needs to be to make it easy to track and resolve bugs. The sub­mis­sion of bugs shall be not hard too. If I look at the state of the world as it is ATM, I would say a webin­ter­face with authen­ti­ca­tion is not a big bur­den to take if I real­ly want to get my prob­lem fixed. Some com­mand line tool would be nice to have, but regard­ing the cur­rent state of our bug­track­er it needs to be option­al instead of a hard require­ment.

Apart from mak­ing it easy to track and resolve prob­lems, the soft­ware also needs to be able to make us aware of the biggest prob­lems. Now… you may ask what is a big prob­lem. Well… IMO it does not mat­ter to you what I think is big or small here. The per­son with a prob­lem needs to decide what is a big prob­lem to him. And peo­ple with the same prob­lem need to be able to tell that it is also a big prob­lem for them. So a fea­ture which allows to “vote” or “+1” or “AOL” (or how­ev­er you want to call it) would allow to let users with prob­lems voice their opin­ion upon the rel­e­vance of the prob­lem to our user­base. This also means there needs to be a way to see the high­est vot­ed prob­lems. An auto­mat­ic mail would be best, but as above this is option­al. If I as a devel­op­er real­ly care about this, I can be both­ered to login to a webin­ter­face (or maybe some­one vol­un­teers to make a copy & paste and send a mail… we need to be will­ing to rethink our pro­ce­dures).

Get­ting patch­es more easy into a FreeB­SD branch

It looks to me that this top­ic is requires a lit­tle bit more involve­ment from mul­ti­ple tools. In my opin­ion we need to switch to a dis­trib­uted ver­sion con­trol sys­tem. One which allows to eas­i­ly cre­ate my own branch of FreeB­SD on my own hard­ware, and which allows to let oth­er users use my branch eas­i­ly (if I want to allow oth­er to branch from my branch). It also needs to be able to let me push my changes towards FreeB­SD. Obvi­ous­ly not direct­ly into the offi­cial sources, but into some kind of stag­ing area. Oth­er peo­ple should be able to have a look at this stag­ing area and be able to review what I did. They need to be able to make some com­ments for oth­ers to see, or give some kind of (multi-dimensional?-)rating for the patch (code qual­i­ty / works for me / does not work / …). Based upon the review/rating and maybe some auto­mat­ed eval­u­a­tion (com­pile test / regres­sion test / bench­mark run) a com­mit­ter could push the patch into the offi­cial FreeB­SD tree (ide­al would be some auto­mat­ed noti­fi­ca­tion sys­tem, a push but­ton solu­tion for inte­gra­tion and so on, but as above we should not be afraid if we do not get all the bells and whis­tles).

If we would have some­thing like this in place, cre­at­ing some kind of long-term-release branch could be used more eas­i­ly in a colab­o­ra­tive man­ner. Com­pa­nies which use the same long-term-release branch could sub­mit their back­ports of fixes/features this way. They also could see if sim­i­lar branch­es (there could be relat­ed but dif­fer­ent branch­es, like 9.4-secu­ri­ty-fixes-only <= 9.4‑official-errata-only <= 9.4‑bugfixes <= 9.4‑bugfixes-and-driverupdates <= …) could be merged to their in-house branch (and maybe con­se­quent­ly push-back to the offi­cial branch they branched from if the patch comes from a dif­fer­ent branch).

It does not mat­ter here if we would cre­ate a fixed set of branch­es for each release, or if we only cre­ate some special-purpose branch­es based upon the phase of the moon (ide­al­ly we would cre­ate a lot of branch­es for every release, companies/users can cher­ry pick/submit what they want, and the sta­tus of a long-term-branch is sole­ly based upon the inflow of patch­es and not by what the secu­ri­ty team or release man­ag­er or a ran­dom devel­op­er thinks it should be… but the real­i­ty will prob­a­bly be some­where in the mid­dle).

I do not know if tools exists to make all this hap­pen, or which tools could be put togeth­er to make it hap­pen. I also did not men­tion on pur­pose tools I am aware of which already pro­vide (small) parts of this. These are just some ideas to think about. Inter­est­ed par­ties are invit­ed to join the dis­cus­sion on hackers@ (which is far away from dis­cussing spe­cif­ic tools or fea­tures), but you are also free to add some com­ments here.

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A phoronix bench­mark cre­ates a huge bench­mark­ing dis­cus­sion

The recent Phoronix bench­mark which com­pared a release can­di­date of FreeB­SD 9 with Ora­cle Lin­ux Serv­er 6.1 cre­at­ed a huge dis­cus­sion in the FreeB­SD mail­inglists. The rea­son was that some peo­ple think the num­bers pre­sent­ed there give a wrong pic­ture of FreeB­SD. Part­ly because not all bench­mark num­bers are pre­sent­ed in the most promi­nent page (as linked above), but only at a dif­fer­ent place. This gives the impres­sion that FreeB­SD is infe­ri­or in this bench­mark while it just puts the focus (for a rea­son, accord­ing to some peo­ple) on a dif­fer­ent part of the bench­mark (to be more spe­cif­ic, blog­bench is doing disk reads and writes in par­al­lel, FreeB­SD gives high­er pri­or­i­ty to writes than to reads, FreeB­SD 9 out­per­forms OLS 6.1 in the writes while OLS 6.1 shines with the reads, and only the reads are pre­sent­ed on the first page). Oth­er com­plaints are that it is told that the default install was used (in this case UFS as the FS), when it was not (ZFS as the FS).

The author of the Phoronix arti­cle par­tic­i­pat­ed in parts of the dis­cus­sion and asked for spe­cif­ic improve­ment sug­ges­tions. A FreeB­SD com­mit­ter seems to be already work­ing to get some issues resolved. What I do not like per­son­al­ly, is that the arti­cle is not updat­ed with a remark that some things pre­sent­ed do not reflect the real­i­ty and a retest is nec­es­sary.

As there was much talk in the thread but not much obvi­ous activ­i­ty from our side to resolve some issues, I start­ed to improve the FreeB­SD wiki page about bench­mark­ing so that we are able to point to it in case some­one wants to bench­mark FreeB­SD. Oth­ers already chimed in and improved some things too. It is far from per­fect, some more eyes – and more impor­tant­ly some more fin­gers which add con­tent – are need­ed. Please go to the wiki page and try to help out (if you are afraid to write some­thing in the wiki, please at least tell your sug­ges­tions on a FreeB­SD mail­inglist so that oth­ers can improve the wiki page).

What we need too, is a wiki page about FreeB­SD tun­ing (a first step would be to take the man-page and con­vert it into a wiki page, then to improve it, and then to feed back the changes to the man-page while keep­ing the wiki page to be able to cross ref­er­ence parts from the bench­mark­ing page).

I already told about this in the thread about the Phoronix bench­mark: every­one is wel­come to improve the sit­u­a­tion. Do not talk, write some­thing. No mat­ter if it is an improve­ment to the bench­mark­ing page, tun­ing advise, or a tool which inspects the sys­tem and sug­gests some tun­ing. If you want to help in the wiki, cre­ate a First­name­Last­name account and ask a FreeB­SD comit­ter for write access.

A while ago (IIRC we have to think in months or even years) there was some frame­work for auto­mat­ic FreeB­SD bench­mark­ing. Unfor­tu­nate­ly the author run out of time. The frame­work was able to install a FreeB­SD sys­tem on a machine, run some spec­i­fied bench­mark (not much bench­marks where inte­grat­ed), and then install anoth­er FreeB­SD ver­sion to run the same bench­mark, or to rein­stall the same ver­sion to run anoth­er bench­mark. IIRC there was also some DB behind which col­lect­ed the results and maybe there was even some way to com­pare them. It would be nice if some­one could get some time to talk with the author to get the frame­work and set it up some­where, so that we have a con­trolled envi­ron­ment where we can do our own bench­marks in an auto­mat­ic and repeat­able fash­ion with sev­er­al FreeB­SD ver­sions.

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Video4Linux2 sup­port in FreeB­SD (lin­ux­u­la­tor)

I com­mit­ted the v4l2 sup­port into the lin­ux­u­la­tor (in 9-cur­rent). Part of this was the import of the v4l2 head­er from lin­ux. We have the per­mis­sion to use it (like the v4l one), it is not licensed via GPL. This means we can use it in FreeB­SD native dri­vers, and they are even allowed to be com­piled into GENERIC (but I doubt we have a dri­ver which could pro­vide the v4l2 inter­face in GENERIC).

The code I com­mit­ted is “just” the glue-code which allows to use FreeB­SD native devices which pro­vide a v4l2 inter­face (e.g. multimedia/pwcbsd or multimedia/webcamd) from lin­ux pro­grams.

Thanks to nox@ for writ­ing the glue code.

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