For­cing a route in Sol­aris?

I have a little prob­lem find­ing a clean solu­tion to the fol­low­ing prob­lem.

A ma­chine with two net­work in­ter­faces and no de­fault route. The first in­ter­face gets an IP at boot time and the cor­res­pond­ing static route is in­ser­ted dur­ing boot into the rout­ing table without prob­lems. The second in­ter­face only gets an IP ad­dress when the shared-​IP zones on the ma­chine are star­ted, dur­ing boot the in­ter­face is plumbed but without any ad­dress. The net­works on those in­ter­faces are not con­nec­ted and the ma­chine is not a gate­way (this means we have a machine-​administration net­work and a production-​network). The static routes we want to have for the ad­dresses of the zones are not ad­ded to the rout­ing table, be­cause the next hop is not reach­able at the time the routing-​setup is done. As soon as the zones are up (and the in­ter­face gets an IP), a re-​run of the routing-​setup adds the miss­ing static routes.

Un­for­tu­nately I can not tell Sol­aris to keep the static route even if the next hop is not reach­able ATM (at least I have not found an op­tion to the route com­mand which does this).

One solu­tion to this prob­lem would be to add an ad­dress at boot to the in­ter­face which does not have an ad­dress at boot-​time ATM (prob­ably with the de­prec­ated flag set). The prob­lem is, that this sub­net (/​28) has not enough free ad­dresses any­more, so this is not an op­tion.

An­other solu­tion is to use a script which re-​runs the routing-​setup after the zones are star­ted. This is a prag­matic solu­tion, but not a clean solu­tion.

As I un­der­stand the in.routed man-​page in.routed is not an op­tion with the de­fault con­fig, be­cause the ma­chine shall not route between the net­works, and shall not change the rout­ing based upon RIP mes­sages from other ma­chines. Un­for­tu­nately I do not know enough about it to be sure, and I do not get the time to play around with this. I have seen some in­ter­st­ing op­tions re­gard­ing this in the man-​page, but play­ing around with this and sniff­ing the net­work to see what hap­pens, is not an op­tion ATM. Any­one with a config/​tutorial for this “do not broad­cast any­thing, do not ac­cept any­thing from outside”-case (if pos­sible)?

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Sony BRAVIA TV & DLNA formats

As I wrote earlier, I try to get some in­fos which formats my Sony BRAVIA 5800 TV is able to play over the net­work. Sony is not really help­ful (they tell only names someone with a DLNA spec could cor­rectly in­ter­pret). Now I took the time to move my TV into a dif­fer­ent sub­net (the same where my NAS is in, not like be­fore in a DMZ), and I in­stalled min­idlna. After some net­work sniff­ing, the use of the In­tel UPnP Device Spy and some min­idlna–source read­ing I have now a bet­ter idea what my Sony TV ex­pects.

The DLNA-​specification seems to man­date a MIME-​type and some DLNA-​specific iden­ti­fier which de­scribes the con­tent a player (a DLNA-​Renderer) is able to dis­play. In the fol­low­ing I will present the MIME-​type, the DLNA-​identifier, and prob­ably a Sony-​specific iden­ti­fier.

Re­gard­ing pic­tures the TV only ac­cepts JPEGs, bit in small, me­dium and large sizes. I did not bother to look up what this means in real val­ues, so far this is not of high in­terest for me. For au­dio the TV ac­cepts MP3s and LPCM (raw PCM samples). The raw sniffed data from the TV looks like this:


The more in­ter­est­ing part for me is the video part. The TV sup­ports MPEG2 Video (the MPEG_​ part in the DLNA.ORG_PN) and H.264 (the AVC_​ part in the DLNA.ORG_PN). For MPEG2 it sup­ports pro­gram streams (PS in DLNA.ORG_PN) and trans­port streams (TS in DLNA.ORG_PN). For PS it sup­ports PAL and NTSC res­ol­u­tions (720×576 is PAL, HD res­ol­u­tions like 720p or 1080i or 1080p are not sup­por­ted). The packet-​length of a trans­port steam can be 188 bytes or 192 bytes. If the width is >= 1288 or the height is >= 720, min­idlna adds HD in DLNA.ORG_PN, else it will add SD. The EU in DLNA.ORG_PN is for SD video with a height of 576 or 288 pixels. De­pend­ing of the com­bin­a­tion of the packet-​length and if there is a timestamp in use or not, the DLNA.ORG_PN will have a _​ISO or a _​T ap­pen­ded.

It also sup­ports H.264. The DLNA.ORG_PN starts with a AVC in this case. Only trans­port streams (TS  in DLNA.ORG_PN) is sup­por­ted. As with MPEG2, the packet-​length of the TS can be 188 or 192 bytes. De­pend­ing of the com­bin­a­tion of the packet-​length and if there is a timestamp in use or not, the DLNA.ORG_PN will have a _​ISO or a _​T ap­pen­ded. De­pend­ing on the pro­file used, min­idlna adds some more in­fos to the DLNA.ORG_PN, BL if it is a baseline-​profile, MP if it is a main-​profile, and HP if it is a high-​profile. I do not see this in the valid video formats my TV re­ques­ted over the wire. As with the MPEG2 format, SD or HD is ad­ded (in min­idlna) de­pend­ing on the width and height, but also on the bitrate of the video. For the main-​profile the width has to be <= 720, the height <= 576 and the bitrate <= 10M (base 10, not base 2) for SD, and the width has to be <=1920, the height <= 1152 and the bitrate <= 20M (base 10, not base 2) for HD. For the high-​profile the width has to be <=1920, the height <=1152, the bitrate <= 30M (base 10, not base 2) and the au­dio has to be AC3 to get the HD ad­ded in DLNA.ORG_PN. The au­dio is spe­cified in DLNA.ORG_PN as MPEG1_​L3 for MP3, AC3 for AC3, and AAC or AAC_​MULT5 for AAC (ste­reo or 5-​channel). As can be seen be­low, the TV seems only to sup­port AC3 au­dio for AVC. The TV also has _​24_​, _​50_​ and _​60_​ in DLNA.ORG_PN. I did not find those things in the min­idlna source (but I have not really searched for this). I could ima­gine that _​24_​ stands for 24 pic­tures per second, and the _​50_​ and _​60_​ for pro­gress­ive videos (with 50 re­spect­ively 60 pic­tures per second), but this is pure spec­u­la­tion from my side. Here is the raw sniffed data:






So far I did not get the time to ex­per­i­ment with this. I also have the im­pres­sion that min­idlna has still some rough edges (the sin­tel video I used to test be­fore with a dif­fer­ent me­dia server, does not show up in the list with min­idlna).

Linuxu­lator ex­plained (for de­velopers): adding ioctls dir­ectly to the ker­nel

After giv­ing an over­view of the in-​kernel ba­sics of the Linuxu­lator, I want now to de­scribe how to add sup­port for new ioctls to the Linuxu­lator.

Where are the files to modify?

The plat­form in­de­pend­ent code for the ioctls is in SRC/​sys/​compat/​linux/linux_ioctl.c. The defines to have names for the ioctl val­ues are in SRC/​sys/​compat/​linux/linux_ioctl.h.

How to modify them?

First of all cre­ate a new header which will con­tain all the struc­tures, named val­ues and mac­ros for those new ioctls. As writ­ten above, the ioctl val­ues (e.g. #define LINUX_​VIDIOC_​ENCODER_​CMD 0x564d /​* 0xc028564d */​) do not be­long there, they shall be ad­ded to linux_ioctl.h. Dur­ing the course of adding sup­port for ioctls, you will need this new header. Add it in the SRC/​sys/​compat/​linux/​ dir­ect­ory, and pre­fix the name with a linux_​. It would be good to de­cide on a com­mon tag here (ref­er­enced as your­tag in the fol­low­ing), and stay with it. Use it wherever you need to have some spe­cific name for the ioctl-​set you want to add. In this case it would res­ult in linux_​your­tag.h (or even linux_​ioctl_​your­tag.h, de­pend­ing if this is used for some­thing very spe­cific to the ioctls, or some gen­eric linux fea­ture) as the name of the header file. This was not done in the past, so do not ex­pect that the names in­side the linux_ioctl.c file will be con­sist­ent to this nam­ing scheme, but it is never too late to cor­rect mis­takes of the past (at least in Open Source soft­ware de­vel­op­ment).

Now add this header to linux_ioctl.c (you need to in­clude compat/linux/linux_yourtag.h). After that add the ioctl val­ues to linux_ioctl.h. As can be seen above, the defines should be named the same as on linux, but with a LINUX_​ pre­fix (make sure they where not defined be­fore some­where else). The ioctl val­ues need to be the same hex val­ues as in Linux, off course. Sort them ac­cord­ing to their hex value. When you ad­ded all, you need to add two more defines. The LINUX_​IOCTL_​your­tag_​MIN and LINUX_​IOCTL_​your­tag_​MAX ones. The MIN-​one needs to be an alias for the first (sor­ted ac­cord­ing to the hex value) ioctl you ad­ded, and MAX needs to be an alias for the last (again, sor­ted ac­cord­ing to the hex value) ioctl you ad­ded.

The next step is to let the Linuxu­lator know that it is able to handle the ioctls in the LINUX_​IOCTL_​your­tag_​MIN to LINUX_​IOCTL_​your­tag_​MAX range. Search the static linux_​ioctl_​function_​t sec­tion of linux_ioctl.c and add such a vari­able for your ioctl set. The name of the vari­able should be some­thing like linux_​ioctl_​your­tag.

Sim­ilar for the handler-​definition for this. Search the static struct linux_​ioctl_​handler sec­tion and add a yourtag_​handler. Set it to { linux_​ioctl_​your­tag, LINUX_​IOCTL_​your­tag_​MIN, LINUX_​IOCTL_​your­tag_​MAX }. To make this hand­ler known to the Linuxu­lator, you need to add it to the DATA_​SET sec­tion. Add DATA_SET(linux_ioctl_handler_set, your­tag_​handler) there.

Now the meat, the func­tion which handles the ioctls. You already defined it as linux_​ioctl_​function_​t, but now you need to write it. The out­line of it looks like this:

static int
linux_​ioctl_​your­tag(struct thread *td, struct linux_​ioctl_​args *args)
        struct file *fp;
        int er­ror;
        switch (args->cmd & 0xffff) {
        case LINUX_​an_​easy_​ioctl:
        case LINUX_​a_​not_​so_​easy_​ioctl:
                /​* your hand­ling of the ioctl */
                fdrop(fp, td);
                re­turn (er­ror);
        /​* some more hand­ling of your ioctls */
       re­turn (ENOIOCTL);
        er­ror = ioctl(td, (struct ioctl_​args *)args);
        re­turn (er­ror);

An easy ioctl in the switch above is an ioctl where you do not have to do some­thing but can pass the ioctl through to FreeBSD it­self. The not so easy ioctl case is an ioctl where you need to do e.g. a fget(td, args->fd, &fp). This is just an ex­ample, there are also other pos­sib­il­it­ies where you need to do ad­di­tional stuff be­fore the re­turn, or where you do not pass the ioctl to FreeBSD. A typ­ical ex­ample of what needs to be done here is to copy val­ues from linux struc­tures to FreeBSD struc­tures (and the other way too), or to trans­late between 64bit and 32bit. Linux pro­grams on amd64 are 32bit ex­ecut­ables and 32bit structures/​pointers. To make this work on amd64, you need to find a way to map between the two. There are ex­amples in the ker­nel where this is already the case. The more prom­in­ent ex­amples in the 64bit<->32bit re­gard are the v4l and v4l2 ioctls.

The te­di­ous part is to re­search if a trans­la­tion has to be done and if yes what needs to be trans­lated how. When this is done, most of the work is not so hard. The linux_yourtag.h should con­tain the struc­tures you need for this trans­la­tion work.

It is also pos­sible to add ioctls in a ker­nel mod­ule, but this is not sub­ject to this de­scrip­tion (I will up­date this post­ing with a link to it when I get time to write about it).

(Free)BSD in­side An­droid

Today I was look­ing into the Open­Source li­censes which are dis­played for An­droid (2.3.4). There are sev­eral files which come with a BSD li­cense.

Dur­ing look­ing at it, I no­ticed that the libm has the copy­right of sev­eral FreeBSD people. I did not had an in-​deep look if this is be­cause they took the FreeBSD libm, or if this is be­cause parts of the FreeBSD libm where ad­op­ted by other BSD pro­jects.

What I no­ticed is, that some spe­cial char­ac­ters are not dis­played cor­rectly. For ex­ample the name Dag-​Erling Smør­grav looks mangled in the dis­play of the li­cense in­side the phone (I hope it is dis­played bet­ter in my blog). His name is not the only prob­lem case, there are also other char­ac­ters which are not rendered as ex­pec­ted.

This does not really look pro­fes­sional.